Cryptorchidism – “The most common congenital anomaly of the scrotum and testicles is the apparent absence of one or both gonads. I use the word “apparent” because the missing testicle(s) usually are actually present inside the body cavity of the dog. The Greek kryptos means hidden, secret, or covered, and the Greek orchi- is a combining form referring to the testicles. The condition is therefore called cryptorchidism and the dog so afflicted is called a cryptorchid. If one testicle is retained, he is a unilateral (one-sided) cryptorchid and if both, a bilateral cryptorchid. A word commonly applied to the former is monorchid but this is a misnomer, as monorchidism would mean the presence of only one testicle anywhere in the body, not just in the scrotum. True monorchids are quite rare, as are anorchids (males with no testicles), and either condition can be verified only be extensive surgery” -Fred Lanting

Prostate Enlargement in Dogs – “Prostatomegaly is a medical condition in which the prostate gland is abnormally large. This is determined by rectal or abdominal palpation, or by abdominal X-ray or ultrasound imaging of the prostate. The enlargement can be symmetrical or asymmetrical, painful or nonpainful. Normal prostate size varies with age, body size, castration status, and breed, so determination of the enlargement is subjective.”

Pyometra – Pyometra is a disease of the uterus which can lead to death if not treated and toxicity occurs. It can strike any in tact female after her heat cycle or after giving birth.

Vaginitis – Inflammation of the vagina may occur in prepubertal or mature (intact or spayed) bitches. Vaginitis usually is due to bacterial infection, which may be secondary to conformational abnormalities such as vestibulovaginal strictures. Viral infection (eg, herpes), vaginal foreign bodies, neoplasia, hyperplasia of the vagina, androgenic steroids (eg, mibolerone), or intersex conditions also may cause vaginitis.

The most common clinical sign is a vulvar discharge. Licking of the vulva, attraction of males, and frequent micturition also may be seen. Signs of systemic illness are not present, and the hemogram and biochemical profile are normal. The absence of these abnormalities helps differentiate vaginitis from open-cervix pyometra, the most important differential diagnosis. The diagnostic evaluation should include a digital examination of the vagina, vaginoscopy, cytology and if necessary culture of the exudate, and abdominal radiographs or ultrasonography to evaluate the uterus. An anterior vaginal culture may be obtained using a guarded sterile culture swab. The vagina contains normal bacterial flora; therefore, culture results must be interpreted cautiously. A heavy growth, especially of one organism, is probably more significant than a light growth of several organisms.

Predisposing factors such as foreign material or anatomic abnormalities should be corrected. Bacterial infection may respond to local treatment (ie, vaginal douches). Systemic, broad-spectrum, bactericidal antibiotics may be needed for persistent infections. Prepubertal animals often do not require treatment because the vaginitis nearly always resolves with the first estrus. Therefore, it may be wise to delay elective ovariohysterectomy in affected animals until after their first estrous cycle.

Additional Info

Brucellosis (Brucella canis) & Abortions in Dogs {}c=2+1556&aid=404