Episcleritis is an inflammation of the episcleral tissue lying adjacent to the eyeball. The deep white tissue that comprises the firm outer layer of the eye is called the sclera, and the tissue above the sclera and extending away from it is the episcleral tissue. Episcleritis may also involve the conjunctiva, which is the thin tissue on the surface of the eye, and usually involves the tissue immediately beneath the conjunctiva. It can be focal (limited to a small area) and marked with nodes, or diffuse (widespread) and involving the entire circumference of the eye. Episcleritis may affect one or both eyes.  Also known as nodular and diffuse episcleritis.

Pannus, or chronic superficial keratitis, is a condition of ongoing inflammation of the cornea (the surface of the eye). Pannus begins as a grayish haze. Gradually blood vessels and pigmented cells move into the normally transparent cornea. As the inflammatory changes spread across the cornea, vision is affected. The condition gradually worsens and usually affects both eyes. Also referred to Chromic Superficial Keratitis, an UltraViolet-aggravated eye condition.

Plasmoma (Atypical Pannus) is distinguished by a thickened and “lumpy” third eyelid. Plasmoma can exist in conjunction with pannus of the cornea, or it may occur alone.

Pigmentary Keratitis is a build up of dark scar tissue on the surface of the eye. It appears as a brown pigment that may gradually cover the eye over time, typically starting in the inner corners of the eye. PK can be caused by numerous things, and can sometimes be caused by nothing. Most often, this is a symptom of some other problem, either dry eye, entropion, or ulcers. It can also be caused by overexposure to the elements. Treatment is the use of Cyclosporine or Tacrolimus eyedrops given once to three times daily to try to remove the pigment. Surgery on the eye can help if the scar tissue is being cause by entropion.

Progressive retinal atrophy or degeneration (PRA or PRD) is the name for several diseases that are progressive and lead to blindness. First recognized at the beginning of the 20th century in Gordon Setters, this inherited condition has been documented in over 100 breeds, and mixed breed animals as well.

SARDS (Sudden Acquired Retinal Degeneration) “Veterinary ophthalmologists are aware of a vision loss syndrome associated with changes in appetite and water consumption in dogs. This condition, known as sudden acquired retinal degeneration syndrome (SARDS), may strike any pure or mixed breed of dog. These pets are generally between the ages of 7 and 14 years of age, with females predominating over males. Research indicates these pets have total destruction of the visual cell layer (the rods and cones) of the retina with subsequent blindness.”
Though there have been not records of a Shiloh with SARDS, awareness of the issue needs to be made.

Uveodermatologic syndrome (UDS) also known as Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada-Like Syndrome (VKH) in Dogs An immune-mediated disease where the body inappropriately attacks its own melanocytes (the pigment-producing cells). These cells seem most prevalent in the skin, retina, and uveal tract of the eye. It is speculated that the immune-reaction is initially triggered by a virus though research is on-going. [read more]

Reference Links

Eyes – Pannus, Uveitis, etc.

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Dealing with a Blind Dog: